Archive - December 2023
Merry Christmas 

Week ending: 31st December: Musselburgh and Morrison’s Haven.

After a week when Central Scotland was bombarded with a series of miserable weather fronts, I was disappointed when the same weather was predicted for Sunday. The Lothian coast, however, was to be mainly cloudy but dry, with an outside chance of a sunny spell or two. I rather fancied a final trip of the year to what is probably our favourite nature-watching location - Musselburgh. So John and I headed to Dalkeith Morrisons for our usual breakfasts (10/10: excellent - fast service and fine food) to set us up for a vigorous spell of observation and photography.

Courtesy of Open Street Map and BBC Tides

At Musselburgh we parked near the Millhill car park by the east bank of the River Esk. There were several Goldeneyes diving in the river between episodes of courtship behaviour. Of course the majority of birds in the air were Herring Gulls and Black-headed Gulls.

Drake Goldeneye Female Goldeneye
Herring Gull Black-headed Gull

At the slipway there were Mallards and Feral Pigeons amongst at least 50 Canada Geese. John noticed a Canada x Greylag  hybrid goose bathing near the island opposite the slipway.

Drake Mallard Female Mallard
Canada Goose Canada X Greylag Goose Hybrid

The Canada x Greylag hybrid showed it’s impressive wingspan as it dried its wings by making several strong wing flaps.

We walked up-river and passed more Canada Geese grazing on the short grass. Jackdaws dared to pinch some of the goodies from the much bigger birds. John alerted me to a pair of Collared Doves  on a bush beside the Roman Bridge. As we returned to the car I got shots of a Moorhen on the island and a Greylag Goose paddling among the Canada Geese.

Jackdaw Collared Dove
Moorhen Greylag Goose

We relocated “downriver” to the mouth of the Esk where we were greeted to the wonderful panoramic view looking west over the Esk towards the southern edge of the Firth of Forth from Portobello to Leith. Arthur’s Seat stands proudly on the left with Edinburgh at the centre of the frame.

A few Oystercatchers dashed overhead above the river. As we passed the Cadet Hall I photographed Starlings sitting on an aerial assembly, while John watched diving Goldeneyes. I snapped a courting pair of Goldeneyes that seemed to be acting all Lovey-dovey.

Oystercatcher Starling

Five Jackdaws passed overhead and joined Carrion Crows that were foraging on the sandy shore. A few Mallards, lit by the golden light of the low winter sunshine, were resting on shallows in the middle of the estuary. A pair of Goldeneyes flew low over the water dashing upstream, probably chasing females.

Jackdaw Carrion Crow
Mallard Goldeneye

A large flock of at least 100 preening Black-headed Gulls lined the opposite side of the estuary.

Near the mass of gulls, a lone Bar-tailed Godwit was foraging in the shallows, while a Turnstone drew our attention as it picked its way across the boulders just below where we were standing at the seawall. I next got a pleasing flight shot of an Oystercatcher as it passed low over the blue water. John found a Cormorant that was diving a lot further out.

Bar-tailed Godwit Turnstone
Oystercatcher Cormorant

John’s bins picked up a line of Eiders flying west to east some 200m from the shore. 

We decided to check out the “new scrapes” and we found it to be more sparsely populated than on previous visits. This was probably a consequence of the fact that the tide was low and birds were still on feeding areas on the shore. However, the view was nice.

 First impressions can be misleading, as we went on to discover. A pair of Goldfinches appeared on a bush right in front of the hide. Next, a pair of gorgeous Mute Swans came into view and soon after I noticed some Gadwalls on the far side of the rightmost scrape. As we left the hide, a Carrion Crow passed overhead with a beakful of bread. We returned to the car and moved to the Levenhall Links car park. From there we walked to the sea wall where I photographed a diving Shag followed by shots of a Cormorant perching on a yellow structure, probably a gas outlet.

Goldfinch Mute Swan
Gadwall Carrion Crow
Shag Cormorant

We walked by the sea wall that’s adjacent to the “old scrapes”. There were at least 100 Wigeon on the water along the whole length after that stretch.

We moved from the sea wall and walked towards the Scrapes. I spotted a Pheasant in the middle of the large area of wild grass to the right of the path and followed that with shots of Stock Doves  which flew over the Pheasant. At the edge of the boating pond there was a Common Redpoll feeding on Alder fruits - the first one we’ve seen at Musselburgh. When we entered the reserve we were disappointed, but not surprised, to find that it was as sparsely populated by birds as the “new scrapes”. Added to this, the low sun was covered by dense clouds. However, despite the poor light level, I managed shots of a pair of Teals …..

Pheasant Stock Dove
Common Redpoll Teal

 ….. and Lapwings gathered at the back of the leftmost scrape.

With the late afternoon light fading steadily we moved to Morrisons Haven, which is about half a mile east of the Scrapes, principally to have a nice setting for the weekly taking of tea and pastries. However, the Sun reappeared and we spent 20 minutes observing the shore. John spotted a lone Dunlin that was sharing a large rock with about 20 Turnstones and a dozen Blackheaded Gulls, not to mention a large Cormorant drying its wings on a smaller neighbouring rock. Meanwhile John was working his binoculars, discovering a Long-tailed Duck  diving about 60m out, followed by a winter-plumage Slavonian Grebe  which was busy a wee bit further out. The bright spell came to an end and, following a shot of a pair of Turnstones foraging on the edge of the beach, we returned to the car for teas.

Dunlin Turnstone
Cormorant Long-tailed Duck
Winter Plumage Slavonian Grebe Turnstone

Our final outing of 2023 was enjoyable and fairly successful - accumulating 29 bird species. I particularly enjoyed seeing the Goldeneyes, Redpoll, Slavonian Grebe and Long-tailed Duck. We, of course, celebrated with tea and (no, not strawberry tarts this week) chocolate cream eclairs. The drab weather is predicted to last for a while, and, hopefully, like this week, we’ll be able to find a dry and bright corner of Scotland for our next trip.

Week ending: 24th December 2023:
Strathclyde Country Park

I was on my own this week and wasn’t entirely looking forward to it due to the rotten weather forecast - rain, cloud and high winds. However I like a challenge and I headed for Strathclyde Country Park where there was a trio of interesting gulls reported: Iceland Gull, Mediterranean Gull  and a Ring-billed Gull . I forewent the usual breakfast as I made a late start, aiming to spend only a couple of hours at the Park.

Courtesy of Weather Pro

I parked at car park no.4 - in which you can park very near the water’s edge - and waited for gaps in the periods of rain and watched for bird activity. Thankfully the rain wasn’t continuous and in the first break I managed nice shots of a female Mallard. Many Black-headed Gulls were bobbing on the very choppy waters of the Loch and I was pleased to see a Cormorant surface no more than 5 metres in front of me. A bit further out there was a lone drake Goosander flapping its wings.

Female Mallard Black-headed Gull
Cormorant Goosander

A few Mute Swans approached me for bread, but I don’t feed wild birds as a rule.

A pair of Mallards flew past, a drake chasing the female, followed a bit later by a pair of Goosanders.

Female Mallard Drake Mallard
Drake Goosander Female Goosander

There were always a few Herring Gulls and Black-headed Gulls passing.

I noticed that many of the Herring Gulls were on their first-winter plumages. There we also a few first-winter Black-headed Gulls. I managed a shot of a flapping female Goosander. I also noticed a patch of colours over trees on the opposite side of the loch - a sign that rain was imminent.

Herring Gull / Black-headed Gull 1st Cycle Herring Gull
Black-headed Gull 1st Cycle Black-headed Gull
Juvenile Female Goosander

It did indeed start raining again. I sheltered in the car, making a few shots from there of a Magpie that had found a chunk of bread, watched by a Carrion Crow in a neighbouring tree. A wee male Pied Wagtail descended onto the water’s edge before getting scared off by a dog. I also got a record shot of a passing Jackdaw.

Magpie Carrion Crow
Pied Wagtail Jackdaw

When the shower had passed, a wee girl and her dad turned up with bread and attracted in rather a lot of gulls, mainly Black-headed Gulls and Herring Gulls. Every slice thrown created a desperate fight as the birds splashed furiously for possession of the bread. Below is one such struggle when a particularly aggressive drake Goosander battled successfully with a Blackheaded Gull for a chunk of bread. As the rain cleared, a rainbow appeared across the loch. 


The next notable incident was the arrival of about 40 noisy Greylag Geese  which included a leucistic Greylag Goose, easily identified by its light brown plumage. The geese moved on when the next shower moved in.

Greylag Goose / Leucistic Greylag Goose.

At this point I was disappointed not to have spotted any of the “interesting” gulls mentioned above. My luck changed though when I located the 2nd cycle Iceland Gull sitting on the water about 100m out .

I relocated to the rowing starting bays at the north end of the loch where I found a Carrion Crow X Hooded Crow hybrid investigating some drinks bottles. That was followed by a shot of a juvenile (evidenced by the brown and white feathers) Carrion Crow. I also found another Carrion Crow checking out a solar panel. The only other birds I found there were several Moorhens roaming on the grassy area before the starting bays.

Hybrid Hooded Crow / Carrion Crow Juvenile Carrion Crow
Carrion Crow Moorhen

Below is the view looking south from the edge of the starting bays.

My final shot of the visit was of the fungus, Crimped Gill, by the bushes that surround the playing fields. Earlier in the week I visited the wooded area opposite the playing fields to the east of the park road. There I found the fungus, Alder Bracket  and was pleased to find a Jay.

Crimped Gill...
Alder Bracket...

It had been a brief but fairly eventful visit. I did not see the Med Gull or Ring-billed Gull but I’ll probably see them later in the week. The rain started up again so I didn’t hang around as it was predicted by my WeatherPro app that it would last a lot longer than earlier showers. My favourite sightings were the Iceland Gull, the feisty Goosanders and the beautiful Greylags descending onto the loch. Next week will be the final outing of the year - please can it be dry
Week ending: 17th December 2023: Skateraw, White Sands Quarry, Dunbar Harbour

For the third week in a row the weather throughout Central Scotland was predicted to be overcast, windy and wet, but mild for the time of year. The best chance for dry weather was to be found in the east - so we headed for the Dunbar area in East Lothian. We decided to visit Skateraw since Black-necked Grebes  had been seen there on the previous day. On the way, we popped into Dalkeith Morrisons for breakfast (7/10: my small breakfast was fine fine but John opted for poached egg on toast and was presented with that - but with crushed avacado, so -3).

Courtesy of BBC Weather App  and BBC Tides

After turning off the A1 for Skateraw I spotted Greylag Geese in a field beside the “old” A1. So that got us off to a promising start.

We parked and immediately got on the sandy beach to photograph a few birds we could see there at the water’s edge. As we approached, a Curlew took my notice but it walked calmly further into the water past a few Mallards and hid behind very large boulders. A male tweeting Pied Wagtail descended then onto the sand before John spotted a Goldeneye bobbing in the choppy waves some 50m out.

Curlew Mallard
Pied Wagtail Goldeneye

We walked east towards the old limekiln where there were large piles of seaweed - excellent for attracting a variety of birds. We didn’t have to wait long before Pied Wagtails and Rock Pipits showed up. I clambered onto the large boulders in front of the limekiln in order to check the shore beyond there and was very pleased to see that a pair of Red-breasted Mergansers  were diving fairly close to the rocky shore.

Female Pied Wagtail Male Pied Wagtail
1st Winter male Pied Wagtail Rock Pipit
Female Red-breasted Merganser Drake Red-breasted Merganser

When we returned to the beach there were small waders  - a Dunlin and a Ringed Plover, and also an Oystercatcher foraging on the shoreline.

The Curlew we saw earlier had moved further along the shoreline but it was spooked by a passing dog walker, providing a photo-opportunity of a flight shot. Possibly encouraged by the Curlew’s exit, an Oystercatcher followed it east towards Torness. We moved west along the beach, heading for the Dry Burn where the Black-headed Grebes were seen the previous day. The drake Merganser we’d seen earlier was near the shore allowing a much closer shot. We also passed a Redshank, the first we’d seen during the visit.

Curlew Oystercatcher
Drake Red-breasted Merganser Redshank

When we left the beach and trekked towards the Dry Burn, the Barns Ness lighthouse, and a lot further west, the Bass Rock came into view.

At the mouth of the Dry Burn there were several Carrion Crows active on the very rocky shore. John spotted a drake Eider standing on rocks that were being lashed by the sea. I turned my attention to the field either side of the burn. A very large flock of at least 100 Woodpigeons were flying into a high field about 150m away. A lot nearer I came across a Rook trying to get to grips with a large pine cone, but getting nowhere, even when dropping it from high.

Carrion Crow Drake Eider
Wood Pigeon Scottish Fisheries Protection Vessel

About 80 Herring Gulls were sitting on a long rock, only occasionally taking flight when a feeding opportunity arose, before returning to the rock.

Sadly we didn’t see any Black-headed Grebes and we made our way back to the car park via Chapel Point where John found a patch of blooming Pansies. There were Cormorants braving the gale force winds as they perched on rocks at the very tip of the Point. However, one by one they flew off the rock towards calmer perches at Torness Power Station.

Redshank Wild Pansy

The picture below conveys the size and scale of the waves faced by the Cormorants. Note the individual flying through the spray.

On arriving back at the car we decided to check out the nearby quarry at White Sands since there are often reports of interesting birds there on social media. As we left Skateraw and drove slowly along the old A1, the Greylags we’d seen on the drive in were closer, so we stopped and John photographed them from the car. On later inspection of these pictures I realised that there were a couple of Pink-footed Geese  with the Greylags. As a further bonus, looking ahead I saw a Pheasant crossing the road and pause on the grass verge. I slowly manoeuvred the car to allow a decent close-upof the fine-looking Pheasant.

Greylag Goose Pink-footed Goose

At White Sands Quarry we were greeted with a partial rainbow - a sign of impending rain. Unfortunately we found when viewing the waters of the quarry that the glare of bright sunshine didn’t allow acceptable pictures. But I’ve included them below anyway. At first, due to the gale force gusts of wind and choppy waves, we didn’t think there were any birds on the water, but several came into view, albeit as silhouettes. A couple of pairs of Mallards, a Black-headed Gull and a trio of Little Grebes entertained us for a time. John then found a newbie fungus - a Scurfy Twiglet , as we stood inside the wooden hide. After 10 minutes we headed for Dunbar Harbour- mainly because it was sheltered from the wind and so may attract birds, which, like us, want to escape the high winds. As we exited the White Sands/ Barns Ness access road, John snapped a Carrion Crow that was posing on a fence post on the side of the single-track road.

Black-headed Gull Little Grebe
Scurfy Twiglet Carrion Crow

At Dunbar Harbour we were delighted to see that a pair of Grey Seals  were showing briefly on the harbour water beside a juvenile Herring Gull. They probably had followed in the fishing vessels that were there, hoping for a few titbits from the crews. Of course there were also Herring Gulls, opportunists, ever-ready to steal the titbits. There was also a sizeable number of Eiders , including adult and immature drakes as well as females. One lucky drake surfaced with a large shellfish, probably a Langoustine, and was immediately set upon by greedy gulls. It dived with its catch and skilfully swallowed very swiftly as it resurfaced. The Grey Seals made another appearance after a half-hour gap.

Grey Seal Herring Gull
Drake Eider Female / Juvenile Male Eider

My final shot was probably the “shot of the day”: a portrait of a Grey Seal, taken on the last occasion we saw it.

After the seal dived, it started to rain and that was our signal to retire to the shelter of the car and to pour the teas and serve the strawberry tarts. It had been a satisfying trip despite the fairly inclement conditions. My favourite sightings were the Red-breasted Mergansers, Pheasant and Pink-feet and of course the Grey Seals and Eiders. Still hoping for better weather next week (Xmas Eve)

Week ending: 10th December 2023: Figgate Park,( Map ) Duddingston Loch and Joppa

A band of rain was to sweep eastwards during Sunday, reaching the Edinburgh area by mid-afternoon. A social media report of Waxwings in Figgate Park ( Website ) in the east side of Edinburgh, so John and I decided to head there, our first visit since last January. Once again we had breakfast in Dalkeith Morrisons’ cafe before we started (excellent: 9/10: -1 since the egg was a bit underdone for my taste).

Courtesy of Weather Pro  and BBC Tides

The sky was overcast when we arrived and we were to be plagued by poor light levels during the whole trip, but, hey, we like a challenge. A flock of birds that looked like Waxwings passed overhead as we entered the park but I didn’t get a picture of them and they didn’t stop in the park. There was a group of Goosanders engaged in courtship behaviour, the males harassing the females, the females occasionally snapping at the males. Meanwhile a few Moorhens were feeding on and around the pond. I snapped a cute Robin as it sat watching us on the boardwalk.

Goosander Moorhen...

The top of Arthur’s Seat can be seen from the park. Note the people gathered on the summit.

As we followed the path around the pond, John came across a juvenile Mute Swan. As we got nearer it became apparent that it had damaged wing feathers. This may have been caused by an injury but it is more likely to have been part of the natural fledging process . Soon a Cormorant came into view. It was perched on a rock at the waters edge on the island. Mallards were active in the water between the island and pathside.

Juvenile Mute Swan Cormorant
Drake Mallard Female Mallard

Black-headed Gulls, always on the lookout for a feeding opportunity, were commuting between the island and the feeding platform. I saw only one Tufted Duck. It was quietly snoozing in the open water to the right of the platform. The Goosanders  we saw earlier at a distance joined the gathering of birds around the Cormorant. Also in the mix was a Wigeon, spotted by John. Beyond that, a second Cormorant surfaced and made repeated dives. It sometimes emerged with a small fish but swallowed it as it surfaced, making it more difficult to photograph it catching a fish.

Black-headed Gull Tufted Duck
Drake Goosander Female Goosander
Wigeon Cormorant

We left the pond area and explored the long section to the west through which the Figgate Burn flows. We could hear many of the small birds that were busy feeding in the tall trees. Hearing them is one thing, getting clear view is another. The poor light level made photography quite difficult-but not impossible. I did manage shots of Long-tailed Tits , Goldfinches and Starlings as they moved in the trees. I also got shots of a Carrion Crow foraging on the ground.

Long-tailed Tit Goldfinch
Starling Carrion Crow

Eventually we followed the path back past the pond towards the entrance. In that area we came across Blackbirds and a Redwing  feeding on the damp grass close to hedges. I was pleased to see a Mistle Thrush gobbling berries from a bush by the park perimeter. Nearby there were a couple of Magpies in the trees and House Sparrows in the bushes.

Male Blackbird Female Blackbird
Redwing Mistle Thrush
Female House Sparrow Magpie

Near a large metal bird feeder we watched Blue Tits and John photographed a rear view of a female Chaffinch. Near the park gate I photographed a Candlesnuff Fungi that was growing on a charred log.

Herring Gull Blue Tit
Female Chaffinch Candlesnuff Fungus

Below are photos of some of the artwork that can be seen around the park.

We relocated a mile or so up the road to Duddingston Loch for a quick look there. When we arrived it started to rain and the light level was very low. Eight Mute Swans were gathered at the water’s edge along with a Canada Goose and a few Mallards. I nearly passed by a female Pheasant that was standing in plain sight right in front of me. Luckily John was more observant and pointed it out. There were very few birds on the Loch, I could only see a single Coot ….

Mute Swan...
Canada Goose Mallard
Female Pheasant Coot

pheasant ….. and several Black-headed Gulls coming and going from a waterside wall.

Next we moved to Joppa, just east of Portobello. It was still raining and the tide was high - not the best conditions for birds or watchers of birds. However patience is a virtue and before too long we had amassed a few sightings of some common birds - a Cormorant flypast, some Turnstones and a few passing Black-headed Gulls. John’s binoculars picked up a distant female Redbreasted Merganser. We finished with a few shots of some Oystercatchers that were on a sheltered pebble beach. A few more Oystercatchers flew in to join them ….

Cormorant Turnstone
Black-headed Gull Female Red-breasted Merganser

 ….. and they exchanged noisy greetings- or were they competing for the best stances?  When we set off we weren’t terribly optimistic with regard to the number of sightings. However we are satisfied with our set. My favourites are the Robin, Cormorant, Mistlethrush and Redwing. We didn’t see any Waxwings or Rowan berries that would have attracted them there. We rounded off the day with tea and strawberry tarts, taken in the dry and warm conditions inside the car (rather than al fresco as per normal). Hoping for better weather next week though.

Week ending: 3rd December 2023: Doonfoot

This week we headed for Doonfoot, south of Ayr, where the weather was predicted to be dry, though cold, but with the possibility of sunny spells. Our usual breakfasts were taken in Ayr Castlehill Road Morrrisons (9/10: very satisfactory, although I’m still puzzled (so -1) why it was all crammed on a tiny plate) before winding our way a few miles south to the Castle Walk car park in Doonfoot.

Courtesy of Weather Pro  and BBC Tides

The tide was rising when we arrived so we made for the mouth of the River Doon, snapping a very accommodating Song Thrush and a Blue Tit on the way. About half a dozen Teal were on the river and there were Yellowhammers and Greenfinches  on the small bushes and long grass in the sand dunes bordering the river. The usual Carrion Crows, always on the lookout for food, were very active around the river.

Song Thrush Blue Tit
Teal Yellowhammer
Greenfinch Carrion Crow

Below is the view north looking towards Ayr.

Easily mistaken for Carrion Crows, their cousins the Rooks  were also foraging at the riverside, as were Herring Gulls. Groups of Mute Swans could be seen on the opposite bank and a family swam from upstream to see if we had bread - we hadn’t.

Herring Gull Mute Swan...

Looking west to the sea shoreline there was a group of 7 Great Black-backed Gulls and a few Wigeon.

After taking a quick shot of a Black-headed Gull that had just landed on the river just in front of us, we decided to walk beyond the low dunes and checkout the pools that we could see to the immediate south (for whatever reason, it was an area we hadn’t explored much in previous visits). We very quickly noticed Redshanks, Turnstones and Oystercatchers busy on and around seaweed piles.

Black-headed Gull Redshank
Turnstone Oystercatcher

John noticed Dunlins  and Ringed Plovers  scurrying along the shoreline.

There were other Dunlins and Ringed Plovers in the rock pools we passed along with a Greenshank

Dunlin Ringed Plover

As the tide advanced, pushing the foraging birds ever closer, John and his trusty bins picked out a few Bar-tailed Godwits  probing the damp sands. I also spotted another Yellowhammer in the dunes area. We made our way across a convenient path which lead back to the car park. There was a Song Thrush (probably the same one I’d photographed earlier) watching us from a small bush).

Bar-tailed Godwit...
Yellowhammer Song Thrush

We crossed the footbridge and had a quick look at the river. A line of snoozing Redshanks were assembled on the north bank of the river.

A few Mallards were cavorting near the opposite bank. On our way back to the car we watched a Rook flying off with what looked like a pine cone in its beak. And right next to the car we inadvertently interrupted a female Blackbird as she was feasting on some juicy red hawthorn berries.

Mallard Black-headed Gull
Rook Female Blackbird

We relocated along the road to the Greenan car park. Below are two views of the castle. On the left is the view seen from the north side and the other is shot from the base of the rock below the tower.

By the time we started our walk along the mile of coast south of the car park, the tide was almost fully in. There was an almost continuous line of seaweed deposited on the sandy shore. We were pleased to see this since a large variety of birds, such as Pied Wagtails and Linnets, hunt the invertebrates that are present in the rotting seaweed piles. A Curlew that had been standing on a rock that had eventually disappeared as the tidal waters rose, flew past as it sought a drier place to rest. A similar experience seemed likely for the Redshank shown below. We always check out the field to the south of the castle and there we saw more Linnets  and also a Dunnock.

Pied Wagtail Linnet
Curlew Wood Pigeon
Redshank Dunnock

On our return trip we retraced our steps past the castle. A trio of Teal were making their way south along the water.

I snapped yet another Greenfinch near the castle rock, followed by a record shot of a pair of Eiders that were diving 50m out. We were both amazed and surprised when a Stonechat  landed on the edge of the seaweed pile just in front of us. Unfortunately I didn’t get my camera to my eye quick enough and it flew off. However I tracked it to its perch and achieved a satisfactory capture. After that, a Rock Pipit landed near us on the seaweed but totally ignored me and my camera, and made my job easier. Another Pied Wagtail crossed our paths before we reached the car. Our final shot was of a Stonechat that was near the fence opposite the car.

Greenfinch Eider
Stonechat... Rock Pipit
Pied Wagtail

As we had our tea and strawberry tarts we agreed that we were very satisfied with our haul of 29 species photographed. The Sun didn’t manage to break through the thick blanket of cloud, but at least it didn’t rain, although it was very cold. Predictions for next week indicate higher temperatures but with a greater chance of rain. Let’s hope it’s not continuous rain.

Highlights - December 2023

We present this month’s gallery of my favourite pictures I’ve taken during December 2023. They are not listed in the order they have been taken, but according to a series of themes. I’ve kept commentary to a minimum, preferring to let each picture talk for itself.







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